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what to do if you encounter a moose

What to Do If You Encounter a Moose in Colorado: 6 Critical Tips

Spotting a moose in the wild can be a breathtaking experience, one that offers a glimpse into the natural world’s majesty. However, it’s essential to remember that moose are wild animals and should be treated with respect and caution. With moose encounters becoming more common in Colorado and the western U.S., this guide aims to educate you on what to do if you encounter a moose, whether you’re hiking, camping, or simply enjoying nature.

Table of Contents

Where Are Moose Encounters Most Likely?

Moose are typically found in forested areas that are rich in their preferred food sources, such as shrubs and young trees. They are especially likely to be near bodies of water like rivers, ponds, and lakes, as these areas offer not only hydration but also essential minerals they consume from the water’s edge. Common places to see moose include:

  • Rocky Mountain National Park
  • Kenosha Pass, Marshall Pass, and Cottonwood Pass
  • State Wildlife Areas near water bodies and streams
  • Grand Mesa in Western Colorado
  • North Park and Middle Park
what to do if you encounter a moose

Moose Biology 101

Understanding a bit about the biology of the moose can also provide valuable insights into their behavior and help you learn what to do if you encounter a moose. Moose are the largest species in the deer family, weighing between 800 to 1,300 pounds and standing up to 7 feet tall at the shoulder. They have long legs, which make it easier for them to move through deep snow and water.


Moose are herbivores, primarily consuming leaves, bark, pinecones, twigs, and aquatic vegetation. The composition of their diet changes seasonally depending on availability.

Breeding Season

The breeding season, or the rut, occurs in the fall. During this time, bull moose become more aggressive and may be more likely to charge if they feel threatened.


Moose cows are highly protective of their young. Calves are generally born in late spring or early summer and stay with the mother for at least one winter.

Sensory Abilities

Moose have an acute sense of smell and hearing but relatively poor eyesight. Understanding this can help you in a potential encounter, as making noise will alert them to your presence more effectively than visual cues.

Understanding Moose Behavior

What to do if you encounter a moose

Moose are generally shy creatures but can become aggressive if they feel threatened. Knowing how to interpret a moose’s behavior can provide you with critical seconds to react appropriately. Signs that a moose might become aggressive include:

  • Lowered head
  • Raised hair on the neck
  • Ears laid back
  • Smacking lips or clicking teeth
  • Stomping feet

By understanding these signs, you can gauge the moose’s mood and act accordingly. For more information on moose behavior, consult Colorado Parks & Wildlife’s guide on the subject. Now we’ll discuss what to do if you encounter a moose that appears aggressive.

Steps to Take When Encountering a Moose

If you come across a moose in the backcountry, the important thing to do is to remain calm. Here are six steps of what to do if you encounter a moose in Colorado.

Step 1: Keep Your Distance

Maintain at least a 75-foot (25 yard) distance from the moose. Never approach it closely for a photograph or any other reason. It is unsafe to try to touch, pose with, or ride a moose.

Step 2: Calmly Make Your Presence Known

Speak calmly and softly while still far away so that the moose is aware of your presence. Surprising a moose is more likely to result in aggression or an attack.

Step 3: Look for Calves

Be extra cautious if you spot a calf. Mother moose are extremely protective and more likely to become aggressive. Most moose attacks happen in the presence of one or more calves.

Step 4: Watch for Signs of Aggression

If the moose starts to approach you, or you notice it lowering its head, raised hair on its back, laid back ears, smacking lips or stomping feet, quickly move away. You can run from moose if needed; unlike bears they will not chase you.

Step 5: Prepare to Take Cover

Identify trees, rocks, or buildings where you can seek refuge if the moose charges. Keep an obstacle between yourself and the moose whenever possible as a precaution.

Step 6: If Charged, Run and Take Cover

Moose aren’t predators, so running from them won’t trigger a chase response as it would with a bear. Put a solid object between you and the moose or climb a tree if needed.

what to do if you encounter a moose with dogs

Dogs Are Often Responsible for Moose Attacks

Colorado Parks and Wildlife reports that more than 80% of moose attacks that result in injuries are triggered by barking dogs. Moose often interpret dogs as predators and threats and will take aggressive action to defend themselves and their calves. If you hike with a dog, you face a higher risk of a moose attack and aggression.

Protect your dogs by keeping them on a leash. If you do encounter a moose with a dog, immediately leave the area and try to put distance between the moose and your dogs. Keep your dogs close to ensure they do not chase or approach moose. Be especially careful if your dogs begin barking at a moose as it may cause them to charge. 

Now You Know What to Do If You Encounter a Moose

Knowing what to do if you encounter a moose can make all the difference for both your safety and the well-being of these magnificent creatures. Always keep your distance, respect their space, and remember that your actions can impact the wildlife around you. Stay informed, stay safe, and keep exploring responsibly.

Additionally, certain towns like Snowmass Village and Breckenridge are becoming increasingly frequented by these large mammals. For more local information, consult Town of Snowmass Village’s moose safety guide or Town of Breckenridge’s tips on living with moose.


A: Moose are not inherently dangerous to humans; however, like any wild animal, they can become dangerous if they feel threatened or cornered. Their large size and powerful build make them capable of causing serious harm, even unintentionally. When in their presence, it’s crucial to give them plenty of space and to be aware of their body language to gauge their mood.

A: Moose are not naturally aggressive toward humans. However, they can act defensively when they feel threatened, especially if they are with their young. During the rutting season, male moose are more likely to be aggressive as they seek out and compete for mates. Recognizing these seasonal and situational factors can help you understand and predict moose behavior.

A: Unlike encounters with predators like bears, where standing your ground might be advisable, it’s generally safer to run and put distance between you and a charging moose. Moose are not predators, so fleeing doesn’t trigger a chase response. If a moose charges, your goal should be to put a solid object, like a tree or a boulder, between you and the animal as quickly as possible.

A: Touching or attempting to pet a wild moose is extremely dangerous and should never be attempted. Not only does it put you at immediate risk, but it’s also stressful for the animal and may contribute to its becoming habituated to human contact, which can lead to dangerous interactions in the future.

A: Bear spray can be effective at deterring a moose in a life-threatening situation, but it should only be used as a last resort. If used, the spray should be directed at the moose’s eyes and nose. However, taking proactive steps to avoid an encounter turning aggressive is preferable to relying on bear spray.

A: While moose attacks are relatively rare, they do occur, particularly if the moose feels threatened. The risks are higher during the rutting season when male moose are more aggressive and when females have young calves to protect. Being informed about moose behavior and taking precautionary steps can significantly reduce the risk of an attack.

A: Indicators that a moose is about to attack include a lowered head, raised hackles on the neck, ears laid back against the head, smacking lips, and stomping feet. Recognizing these signs can give you crucial seconds to react appropriately, such as by running to a safe distance or finding cover.

A: Encouraging a moose to move on usually involves speaking to it in a calm yet assertive voice from a safe distance. However, you should never approach a moose to try to make it leave an area. Your primary aim should always be to maintain a safe distance and retreat without escalating the situation.

Alex Derr, Founder of The Next Summit

Alex Derr is an Eagle Scout, climber, and environmental policy expert located in Denver, Colorado. He created The Next Summit to help others stay safe exploring the mountains and advocate to preserve the peaks for the future. Follow him on Linkedin or Twitter or click here to contact him.

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